●Implicit / Explicit Methods
The explicit method speeds up calculation by giving a suitable speed of sound.
●Suppression of Pressure Oscillation
Spatial pressure oscillation can be suppressed using this function, resulting in higher accuracy .
●Negative Pressure Model
Unlike other particle-based methods, Particleworks can handle negative pressure with ease. Define the outside pressure or atmospheric pressure.
Particleworks offers two models: The CSF model calculates surface tension from the geometric shape of the object, whereas the Potential model uses interfacial energy between objects.
One of the advantages of the Potential model is contact angle. You can set contact angles between two different states of matter, such as wall-fluid and fluid-fluid. By specifying the magnitude of the attractive force, you can simulate multiple fluids that don't mix, such as oil and water.
Walls can be either particles or polygons. Particle walls allow you to calculate internal temperature distributions, while polygon walls generally create a smaller memory footprint and allow for faster calculation. You can set movements for both types of walls.
Inflow boundaries allow you to generate fluid or powder over time. You can specify the flow by its velocity or flow rate(volume). Inflows are movable.
●Moving / Periodic Boundaries
The mesh-free method allows the simulation region to be moved. This saves computational resources when simulating a large region,such as a waterway driving test. Periodic boundaries are also supported.
●Newtonian / Non-Newtonian Fluids
Particleworks can simulate non-Newtonian fluids ‒ such as power-law or Bingham fluid ‒ as well as Newtonian fluids. For more detailed control over viscosity, you can specify custom functions or data tables.
When simulating high-viscosity fluids, the explicit method tends to give a smaller time step, resulting in a longer calculation.
In contrast, Particleworks’ implicit method maintains a constant time step, making it an ideal solution for such simulations.